Fruits are always considered as salubrious food items, and higher fruit intake is significantly associated with reduced risk of disease-specific complications and all-cause mortality. According to a joint report by the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund, the diet enriched with fruits and vegetables also associated with the significant reduction of various cancers like the oesophagus, lung, stomach, rectum, mouth, and many more.
Therefore, it is not wrong to say that lifestyle changes for cancer patients and in individuals with other health conditions bring a substantial change in their health. One of the key anti-cancer foods to be incorporated as a lifestyle change is including an apple to the diet.
Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit following bananas all around the world. Today, there are around 8000 varieties of apples presently in the world. The dietary components present in apple are an essential contributor to the prevention of diseases.
We'll discuss the following things:
What nutritional components does apple contain?
An apple is enriched with soluble fruit fibre, vitamin C, Mg, K, proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, and essential bio-active polyphenols including phloretin and flavonoids.
"Like lycopene in tomatoes, flavonoids in apple are the reason behind its bright red colour."
What are polyphenols?
Polyphenols are the potent phytochemicals that are especially found in vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, tea, coffee, and chocolates. In total, there are around 8000 polyphenols present in nature. Polyphenols are known for their potent antioxidant properties.
"Average 100 grams fresh weight of fruits (apple, cherries, grapes, berries, and pear) hold up to 300 mg of polyphenols"
Apple for overall health
It is well known that apple polyphenols possess significant antioxidant actions and this function of an apple makes it a boon for many illnesses that triggered byoxidative stress. The problems that can occur due to the presence of oxygen radicals are neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes mellitus, ageing, retinal degeneration, and cancer.
In various studies conducted with human participants, it is seen that 2-week dietary intervention with juices of apple or other fruits like grapes significantly raises the antioxidant levels and decreases the body levels of malondialdehyde (a by-product of lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress and the antioxidant status in cancerous patients) in the body.
Apple for cancer patients
It is well known why apple can be the best food to fight against cancer. The polyphenols and vitamins present in this fruit make this fruit efficient to combat various types of cancer cell lines.
- Apple induces the apoptotic cancer celldeath
One of the abundant polyphenols that are present in apple is responsible for this action. It is phloretin.
Phloretin hindered the cell growth of leukaemia, leads to cells' growth cycle arrest and prompt melanoma cells apoptosis via deprivation of glucose uptake. The restriction of intracellular glucose uptake is an essential mechanism to kill the cancer cells. Because many cancer cell lines profoundly depend upon aerobic glycolysis for energy.
It is also investigated that phloretin-based adjuvant therapy helps to improve the anticancer activity of cisplatin against non-small cell lung cancer.
"Like apple, there are also other anti-cancer foods which possess this property and significantly help to curb the cancer cells."
- Apple regulates cell proliferation
Along with its apoptotic and antioxidant properties, apple also exerts an impact upon signalling pathways and regulates cell growth and proliferation.
In an analysis, it is seen that phloretin tends to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells, cause apoptosis, and also prevents the invasion and migration of cancer cells. In another study, the apple juice also exhibited promising actions against breast cancer cell proliferation.
- Apple restricts cell migration
Apple restricts the invasion and migration of various cancer cell lines. It is because the apple alerts the pathways (lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 signalling) which play a significant role in cell proliferation, migration, and survival.
Therefore, by initiating antioxidant, apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-migration effects, apple helps to restrict the development of various cancer cells, for instance, liver, lung, breast, glioblastoma, colon, colorectal and ovarian cancers.
So, having an apple regularly not only boosts your metabolism, controls sugar levels, and maintains heart health, but also reduces the risk of cancer.
Believe the phrase "An apple a day, keeps the doctor away" and don't let your day pass without consuming an apple.