Colorectal cancer is considered to be the third leading cause behind cancer deaths globally. Also, the incidence of this cancer and associated mortality is still on rise, especially in developing countries. This is also known as colorectal adenocarcinoma.
The treatment options for colorectal cancer varies from patient to patient and is assessed according to tumor size, stage of the cancer and the location of cancer. There are cancer drugs used to treat advanced colorectal cancer. The research has been improved significantly in the context of colorectal cancer treatment. However, this cancer is also associated with the incidence of recurring cancer.
According to various epidemiological analyses, the diet enriched with fibers helps to reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Other similar studies also evaluated the importance of a polyphenol-rich diet in colorectal cancer prevention.
Furthermore, it is found that colorectal cancer is counted amongst the most preventable cancer and in colon or rectum carcinogenesis prevention, dietary modification plays a significant role. Therefore, it is high time that we should start eating healthy, especially polyphenol rich foods.
Polyphenol Rich Foods
Grains, vegetables, fruits and nuts are the major foods that are abundantly rich in polyphenols and have a potential action against colorectal cancer. Other than this, you should also include fruits in the form of juices in your daily diet.
Fruit juices known to alkalize your body, enrich your body with polyphenolic components, certain vitamins, minerals and enzymes. In this way, the consumption of juices can be very effective to keep you away from colorectal cancer.
Let's take a look on some of the delicious and effective fruits juices role in colorectal cancer prevention:
Researchers have explored the notable role of pomegranate fruit and extract against prostate, skin, breast, colorectal and lung cancer. It has been seen that pomegranate fruit as well as juice are known to possess remarkable anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic actions, which propose its use as a promising chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agent.
Expounding about pomegranate bioactives, pomegranate juice contains one of the major bioactive, ellagitannin, in significantly higher levels (about 2g per litre of juice). Other than this constituent, pomegranate juice also contains many other bioactives.
Phytochemicals of Pomegranate Juice
This pomegranate juice contains many types of flavonoids and polyphenols, for instance, ellagitannin, ellagic acids and gallo.
It has been evaluated that polyphenols present in fermented pomegranate juice exhibit twice the antiproliferative effects in comparison to polyphenol from fresh juice.
The commercial hydrostatic pressing prepared pomegranate juice contains potential levels of pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside), flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol), flavones (luteolin) and ellagitannin (punicalins and punicalagins).
Ellagic acid is present in pomegranate juice and is found to be analogous to urolithins. The urolithins appear to be consistently bioavailable where these are stored in the intestine, colon and prostate. Ellagic acids are also known to impede cancer initiation and inhibit activation of CYP1.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) are enzymes which are used to stimulate chemical carcinogenesis. This bioactive of pomegranate juice aids in inhibiting or inducing this enzyme and lowers the risk of getting cancer.
Furthermore, the ellagic acid also stimulates phase-2 enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST). GST are the enzymes which are known to detoxify the xenobiotics. The xenobiotics are the substances which are associated with increasing risk of various cancer cell lines as well as other diseases like diabetes, Parkinson's and asthma.
Citrus Fruits like oranges, lemons and limes are also known to exhibit a potential role in lowering the risk of various cancers.
According to the results of a large study, it has been noticed that people who had citrus fruit or juice 3 to 4 days a week were found to be associated with less risk of getting cancer as compared to people who had 2 days or lower intake of citrus juice a week.
Phytochemicals of Citrus Juice
The juice and pulp of citrus fruits known to contain substantial levels of flavonoids like hesperidin, apigenin, naringenin, limonoids, cryptoxanthin, carotenoid and nobiletin. The peel of many citrus fruits also known to contain one another essential bioactive, called tangeritin. All these bioactives are known to possess potential chemo-preventive agents.
On the other hand, the pulp made of Satsuma mandarin also enriched with hesperidin and β-cryptoxanthin in high quantities. These two bioactives are known to be very helpful in preventing colorectal carcinogenesis.
These bioactives suppress cancer initiation via:
- Stimulates the free radicals scavenging
- Improves immunity of the body
- Enhances the gap junction
- Regulates the activities of enzymes involved in tumorigenesis and carcinogenesis
- Suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines expression
- Regulates the inflammatory enzymes in colon
- Suppresses the hyper-cell proliferation activity in colon induced by carcinogens
Other than these functions, The bioactives of citrus juices are also known to inhibit the several cytokines expression which are involved in cancer progression (interleukin-1 1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha). Furthermore, the inflammatory enzymes it suppresses are NOS and COX-2.
Citrus Juices improve the expression of Nrf2 protein in the colon. This protein is a major regulator of enzymes GST and QR. These two enzymes are responsible for the reactive electrophiles and oxidant detoxification, which leads to mutations and then cancer. This protein also tends to damage DNA, lipids and proteins and affects the tissue renewal efficiency following toxicity.
Therefore you must drink these two juices regularly as it will keep your body clean and healthy. Make these juice at home and avoid juices with added preservatives.
How to make pomegranate juice at home?
- Pick the deep ruby arils pomegranate with patches of golden brown.
- Take out the pomegranate arils in a bowl containing water.
- Drain the water and wash these once again.
- Now pour these arils into blender for about 15 to 20 minutes
- Strain the juice and consume by adding some salt and black pepper.
How to make citrus juice at home?
- First of all, bring citrus (Lemon & Oranges) fruits at room temperature.
- Massage these fruits little bit using your palm. It will help you to extract their juice easily.
- Now cut the fruits into half or in the sizes as per to which method you are using for juice extraction.
- You can use a citrus reamer, handheld juicer or manual juice press method to take out juice.
- Collect the juice in a jar, add some water, salt, black pepper and enjoy drinking it.
Other than these also read how effective whole grains are in breast cancer prevention.